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Quantum electrodynamics: theory

Q.E.D. — Википедия

This article is about the Latin phrase. For the physical theory, see quantum electrodynamics. For other uses, see QED (disambiguation).

Q.E.D. (also written QED and QED) is an initialism of the Latin phrasequod erat demonstrandum meaning "what was to be demonstrated" or "what was to be shown."[1] Some may also use a less direct translation instead: "thus it has been demonstrated." Traditionally, the phrase is placed in its abbreviated form at the end of a mathematical proof or philosophicalargument when the original proposition has been restated exactly, as the conclusion of the demonstration or completion of the proof.[2]

Etymology and early use[edit]

The phrase, quod erat demonstrandum, is a translation into Latin from the Greekὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι (hoper edei deixai; abbreviated as ΟΕΔ). Translating from the Latin into English yields, "what was to be demonstrated", however, translating the Greek phrase ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι produces a slightly different meaning. Since the verb "δείκνυμι" also means to show or to prove,[3] a better translation from the Greek would read, "The very thing it was required to have shown."[2]

The Greek phrase was used by many early Greek mathematicians, including Euclid[4] and Archimedes.

Modern philosophy[edit]

During the European Renaissance, scholars often wrote in Latin, and phrases such as Q.E.D. were often used to conclude proofs.

Perhaps the most famous use of Q.E.D. in a philosophical argument is found in the Ethics of Baruch Spinoza, published posthumously in 1677. Written in Latin, it is considered by many to be Spinoza's magnum opus. The style and system of the book are, as Spinoza says, "demonstrated in geometrical order", with axioms and definitions followed by propositions. For Spinoza, this is a considerable improvement over René Descartes's writing style in the Meditations, which follows the form of a diary.[6]

Difference from Q.E.F.[edit]

There is another Latin phrase with a slightly different meaning, usually shortened similarly, but being less common in use. Quod erat faciendum, originating from the Greek geometers' closing ὅπερ ἔδει ποιῆσαι (hoper edei poiēsai), meaning "which had to be done". Because of the difference in meaning, the two phrases should not be confused.

Euclid used the phrase, Quod Erat Faciendum (Q.E.F.), to close propositions that were not proofs of theorems, but constructions. For example, Euclid's first proposition showing how to construct an equilateral triangle, given one side, is concluded this way.

Equivalents in other languages[edit]

Q.E.D. has acquired many translations in various languages, including:

LanguageAbbreviationsStands for...
AlbanianÇ.D.V.Çfarë deshëm të vërtetonim
Arabicهـ.ط.ثوهو المطلوب إثباته
ArmenianԻ.Պ.Ա. (rarely abbreviated)ինչը և պահանջվում էր ապացուցել
Bengaliঅ. সি.অতঃ সিদ্ধ






CzechC.B.D.což bylo dokázati
DanishH.S.B.hvilket skulle bevises

wat moest bewezen worden

wat te bewijzen was
EsperantoK.E.P.kio estis pruvenda
EstonianM.O.T.T.mida oligi tarvis tõestada
FinnishM.O.T.mikä oli todistettava
FrenchC.Q.F.D.ce qu'il fallait démontrer
CatalanC.V.D.com volíem demostrar
GalicianC.Q.D.como queríamos demonstrar
Georgianრ.დ.გრისი დამტკიცებაც გვსურდა
Germanw.z.b.w.was zu beweisen war
GreekΟ.Ε.Δ.όπερ έδει δείξαι
GrimeQ.M.Quik Maths
Hebrewמש"למה שהיה צריך להוכיח
Hindiइति सिद्धमयही सिद्ध करना था
HungarianE.K.B. (rarely abbreviated)Ezt kellett bizonyítani
IcelandicÞ.S.S.Á.Það sem sanna átti
ItalianC.V.D.come volevasi dimostrare
Latviank.b.j.kas bija jāpierāda
NorwegianH.S.V.Hvilket skulle vises.



co było do udowodnienia

co było do okazania

czego należało dowieść

co kończy dowód
PortugueseC.Q.D.como queríamos demonstrar
Romanianc.c.t.d.ceea ce trebuia demonstrat
Russianч.т.д.что и требовалось доказать
Sanskritइ.सि.इति सिद्धम्

што је требало доказати

što je trebalo dokazati
Slovakč.b.t.d.čo bolo treba dokázať
Sloveniank.e.d.konec enega dokaza

como queríamos demostrar

queda entonces demostrado

vilket skulle bevisas

vilket skulle visas
TurkishG.İ.B.Gösterilmek istenen şey de buydu

що й слід було довести

що і треба було довести
Vietnameseđpcm.Điều phải chứng minh

There is no common formal English equivalent, although the end of a proof may be announced with a simple statement such as "this completes the proof", "as required", "hence proved", "ergo", or by using a similar locution. WWWWW or W5 - an abbreviation of "Which Was What Was Wanted" - has been used similarly. Often this is considered to be more tongue-in-cheek than the usual Halmos symbol (see below) or Q.E.D.

Typographical forms used symbolically[edit]

Main article: Tombstone (typography)

Due to the paramount importance of proofs in mathematics, mathematicians since the time of Euclid have developed conventions to demarcate the beginning and end of proofs. In printed English language texts, the formal statements of theorems, lemmas, and propositions are set in italics by tradition. The beginning of a proof usually follows immediately thereafter, and is indicated by the word "proof" in boldface or italics. On the other hand, several symbolic conventions exist to indicate the end of a proof.

While some authors still use the classical abbreviation, Q.E.D., this practice is increasingly viewed as archaic or even pretentious. Paul Halmos pioneered the use of a solid black square at the end of a proof as a Q.E.D symbol, a practice which has become standard, although not universal. Halmos adopted this use of a symbol from magazine typography customs in which simple geometric shapes had been used to indicate the end of an article. This symbol was later called the tombstone or Halmos symbol or even a halmos by mathematicians. Often the Halmos symbol is drawn on chalkboard to signal the end of a proof during a lecture, although this practice is not so common as its use in printed text.

The tombstone symbol appears in TeX as the character (filled square, \blacksquare) and sometimes, as a (hollow square, \square). In the AMS Theorem Environment for LaTeX, the hollow square is the default end-of-proof symbol. Unicode explicitly provides the "End of proof" character, U+220E (∎). Some authors use other Unicode symbols to note the end of a proof, including, ▮ (U+25AE, a black vertical rectangle), and ‣ (U+2023, a triangular bullet). Other authors have adopted two forward slashes (//) or four forward slashes (////).[7] In other cases, authors have elected to segregate proofs typographically by displaying them as indented blocks.[8]

Modern humorous use[edit]

In Joseph Heller's book Catch-22, the Chaplain, having been told to examine a forged letter allegedly signed by him (which he knew he didn't sign), verified that his name was in fact there. His investigator replied, "Then you wrote it. Q.E.D." The chaplain said he didn't write it and that it wasn't his handwriting, to which the investigator replied, "Then you signed your name in somebody else's handwriting again."[9]

In the 1978 science-fiction radio comedy, and later in the television and novel adaptations of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, "Q.E.D." is referred to in the Guide's entry for the babel fish, when it is claimed that the babel fish - which serves the "mind-bogglingly" useful purpose of being able to translate any spoken language when inserted into a person's ear - is used as evidence for existence and non-existence of God. The exchange from the novel is as follows: "'I refuse to prove I exist,' says God, 'for proof denies faith, and without faith I am nothing.' 'But,' says Man, 'The babel fish is a dead giveaway, isn't it? It could not have evolved by chance. It proves you exist, and so therefore, by your own arguments, you don't. QED.' 'Oh dear,' says God, 'I hadn't thought of that,' and promptly vanishes in a puff of logic."[10]

In Neal Stephenson's 1999 novel Cryptonomicon, Q.E.D. is used as a punchline to several humorous anecdotes in which characters go to great lengths to prove something non-mathematical.[11]

Singer-songwriter Thomas Dolby's 1988 song "Airhead" includes the lyric, "Quod erat demonstrandum, baby," referring to the self-evident vacuousness of the eponymous subject; and in response, a female voice squeals, delightedly, "Oooh... you speak French!" [12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^"Definition of QUOD ERAT DEMONSTRANDUM". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2017-09-03.
  2. ^ abEuclid's Elements translated from Greek by Thomas L. Heath. 2003 Green Lion Press pg. xxiv
  3. ^Entry δείκνυμι at LSJ.
  4. ^Elements 2.5 by Euclid (ed. J. L. Heiberg), retrieved 16 July 2005
  5. ^Philippe van Lansberge (1604). Triangulorum Geometriæ. Apud Zachariam Roman. pp. 1–5.
  6. ^The Chief Works of Benedict De Spinoza, translated by R. H. M. Elwes, 1951. ISBN0-486-20250-X.
  7. ^Rudin, Walter (1987). Real and Complex Analysis. McGraw-Hill. ISBN0-07-100276-6.
  8. ^Rudin, Walter (1976). Principles of Mathematical Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN007054235X.
  9. ^Heller, Joseph (1971). Catch-22. ISBN9780573606854. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  10. ^Adams, Douglas (2005). The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (Film tie-in ed.). Basingstoke and Oxford: Pan Macmillan. pp. 62–64. ISBN0-330-43798-4.
  11. ^Stephenson, Neal (1999). Cryptonomicon. New York, NY: Avon Books. ISBN978-0-06-051280-4.
  12. ^"Airhead - Thomas Dolby". play.google.com. Retrieved 2016-09-15.

External links[edit]

Philippe van Lansberge's 1604 Triangulorum Geometriæ used quod erat demonstrandum to conclude some proofs; others ended with phrases such as sigillatim deinceps demonstrabitur, magnitudo demonstranda est, and other variants.[5]
Spinoza's original text of Ethics, Part 1, Q.E.D. is used at the end of Demonstratio of Propositio III on the right hand page
Источник: http://wikipedia.moesalih.com/Q.E.D.

Опубликовано: 02.01.2018 | Автор: Елизавета

Рейтинг статьи: 5

Всего 6 комментариев.

11.01.2018 Эдуард:
Q.E.D. — аббревиатура от лат. quod erat demonstrandum — «что и требовалось доказать», «ч. т. д.»; латинское выражение, обозначающее завершение доказательства теоремы. Выражение quod erat demonstrandum является переводом на латинский с греческого ὅπερ ἔδει δεῖξαι.

20.01.2018 Ангелина:
Q.E.D. (also written QED and QED) is an initialism of the Latin phrase quod erat demonstrandum meaning "what was to be demonstrated" or "what was to be shown." Some may also use a less direct translation instead: "thus it has been demonstrated.".

07.01.2018 Августа:
While some authors still use the classical abbreviation, Q.E.D., this practice is increasingly viewed as archaic or even pretentious.

04.01.2018 writsaddda:
Консалтинговая компания Q.E.D. специализируется на продвижении услуг и помогает сделать из существующего направления бизнеса востребованный продукт с максимальной конверсией в.

16.01.2018 riosvilot:
Тома Со - чудаковатый гений, учившийся в Массачусетском технологическом институте и зачем-то вернувшийся в обычную школу. Мизухара Кана, дочь полицейского инспектора, известная всем своим неугомонным характером.

23.01.2018 Ипполит:
Q.E.D. — аббревиатура от лат. quod erat demonstrandum — «что и требовалось доказать».Q.E.D. Обзоры книг. Мысли вслух.